Following the completion of Osaka Castle in the 16th century, the infrastructure of the city began to be developed including river projects and the construction of many moats. The mid-Edo era began the fl ourishing of the city as the center of economy and trade for merchants. Major tourist spots, historical sites, and the downtown area are concentrated in the Kita and Minami areas of Osaka. Recently, there are many new hot spots in Osaka. Th is spring, why not take a trip to the ‘new’ Osaka.